Clinical characteristics of triple negative breast cancer in Egyptian women: a hospital-based experience
Purpose: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis despite the high rates of response to chemotherapy. We aim to study the clinical features, factors influencing recurrence and survival outcomes of TNBC patients.
Methods: We retrospectively studied the charts of patients with biopsy proven TNBC treated at The Clinical Oncology Department Ain-Shams University between 2009 and 2012.
Results: One hundred and forty five patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The incidence of TNBC was 10.5% - 15% with a mean of 12% of all breast cancer patients. The follow-up duration ranged from six months to four years. The age range was 26 to 78 years. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma represented 93.1% of the pathologic types. 87% of patients were free of metastases (M0) at presentation. Clinical stages II and III represented 38 and 39.5% of the patients. 66% of patients had modified radical mastectomy. Following surgery, 77.5% of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy while 61% of the patients had adjuvant radiation therapy. Anthracyclines based chemotherapy was given to 52% of patients. Disease-free survival (DFS) of the M0 patients at 20 and 30 months was 92% and 80% respectively. Relapse occurred in 23% of M0 patients. After a mean duration of DFS of 15.1 months, the most common sites of metastases for relapsed M0 patients were pulmonary (44.8%), bone (41.4%), and locoregional (13.8%). The median overall survival (ORS) of patients was 18 months (1 - 45 months), whereas for the M1 group of patients the median ORS was 9 months (2 - 29 months).
Conclusion: The incidence, pathological characteristics, and clinical behavior of TNBC were similar to what is mentioned in the literature. Adding taxanes to the chemotherapy protocols and using postoperative radiotherapy were both associated with a significant increase in the mean period of DFS, while did not significantly affect the ORS.
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