Radiation protection and secondary cancer prevention using biological radioprotectors in radiotherapy
Radiotherapy is the feasible treatment approach for many malignant diseases and cancers. New radiotherapy techniques such as ion therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and intensity modulated radiation therapy deliver higher low dose radiation to large volume of normal tissues and are in debating as more secondary cancers inducers. A secondary cancer after radiotherapy is an important issue that reduces treatment efficiency and should be decreased. Radioprotective compounds are of importance in clinical radiation therapy for saving normal tissues. In the present study, we are so interest to introduce, suggest and review the application of biological radioprotectors in radiotherapy. We propose probiotics, prebiotics, gas, vitamin and nanoparticle producing microorganisms as new biological systems based radioprotectors to protect normal tissues. Also, we reviewed the main biological pathways, molecules and also radioadaptive response that act as radioprotectors. In this review we tried to address the secondary cancer induction by radiotherapy and also main biological radiation protection approaches, although there is a wealth of data in this subject.
Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011; 61:69-90.
Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin 2013; 63:11-30.
Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2015. CA Cancer J Clin 2015; 65:5-29.
Sawant S, Shegokar R. Cancer research and therapy: Where are we today? Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2:02048.
Jones JA, Lutz ST, Chow E, Johnstone PA. Palliative radiotherapy at the end of life: A critical review. CA Cancer J Clin 2014; 64:295-310.
Carter HE, Martin A, Schofield D, et al. A decision model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared to three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in patients receiving radiotherapy to the prostate bed. Radiother Oncol 2014; 112:187-93.
Lu L. Dose calculation algorithms in external beam photon radiation therapy. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1:01025.
Petrou EI, Narayanasamy G, Lavdas E, et al. Evaluation of the generalized gamma as a tool for treatment planning optimization. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2:020418.
Thirumalai-Swamy S, Anuradha C, Kathirvel M, et al. Pretreatment quality assurance of volumetric modulated arc therapy on patient CT scan using indirect 3D dosimetry system. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2:020416.
Ulmer W. Notes of the editorial board on the role of medical physics in radiotherapy. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1:01014.
Rana S, Pokharel S, Zheng Y, et al. Treatment planning study comparing proton therapy, RapidArc and intensity modulated radiation therapy for a synchronous bilateral lung cancer case. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014;2:020216.
Al-Tonbary Y. Recent advances in treatment of childhood cancer: role of targeted therapy. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013; 1:01028.
Rana S, Cheng C, Zheng Y, et al. Dosimetric study of uniform scanning proton therapy planning for prostate cancer patients with a metal hip prosthesis, and comparison with volumetric-modulated arc therapy. J Appl Clin Med Phys 2014; 15:4611.
Newhauser WD, Durante M. Assessing the risk of second malignancies after modern radiotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2011;11:438-48.
Salama JK, Kirkpatrick JP, Yin FF. Stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment of extracranial metastases. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2012; 9:654-65.
Paganetti H, Athar BS, Moteabbed M, et al. Assessment of radiation-induced second cancer risks in proton therapy and IMRT for organs inside the primary radiation field. Phys Med Biol 2012; 57:6047.
Zelefsky MJ, Housman DM, Pei X, et al. Incidence of secondary cancer development after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy and image-guided brachytherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012; 83:953-9.
Islam MR. Secondary neutrons issue in proton radiotherapy-a brief report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2:02017.
Lee B, Lee S, Sung J, Yoon M. Radiotherapy-induced secondary cancer risk for breast cancer: 3D conformal therapy versus IMRT versus VMAT. J Radiol Prot 2014; 34:325.
Harbron RW, Feltbower RG, Glaser A, et al. Secondary malignant neoplasms following radiotherapy for primary cancer in children and young adults. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2014; 31:259-67.
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Wong J, Kleinerman R, et al. Risk of second cancers according to radiation therapy technique and modality in prostate cancer survivors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015; 91:295-302.
Schneider U. Modeling the risk of secondary malignancies after radiotherapy. Genes 2011; 2:1033-49.
Simone CB 2nd, Kramer K, O'Meara WP, et al. Predicted rates of secondary malignancies from proton versus photon radiation therapy for stage I seminoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012; 82:242-9.
Brodin NP, Munck Af Rosenschöld P, Aznar MC, et al. Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma. Acta Oncol 2011; 50:806-16.
Ziech D, Franco R, Pappa A, Panayiotidis MI. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Induced genetic and epigenetic alterations in human carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 2011; 711:167-73.
Muller PA, Vousden KH. Mutant p53 in cancer: new functions and therapeutic opportunities. Cancer cell 2014; 25:304-17.
Shah DJ, Sachs RK, Wilson DJ. Radiation-induced cancer: a modern view. Br J Radiol 2012; 85:e1166-73.
Mothersill C, Seymour C. Radiation-induced bystander effects, carcinogenesis and models. Oncogene 2003; 22:7028-33.
Prise KM, O'Sullivan JM. Radiation-induced bystander signalling in cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2009; 9:351-60.
Hei TK, Zhou H, Ivanov VN, et al. Mechanism of radiation-induced bystander effects: a unifying model. J Pharm Pharmacol 2008; 60:943-50.
Nair CK, Parida DK, Nomura T. Radioprotectors in radiotherapy. J Radiat Res 2001; 42:21-37.
Abdollahi H. Probiotic-based protection of normal tissues during radiotherapy. Nutrition 2014; 30:495-6.
Araya M, Morelli L, Reid G, et al. Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. Joint FAO/WHO Working Group report on drafting guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food, London; (ON, Canada) 2002.
Mego M, Holec V, Drgona L, et al. Probiotic bacteria in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Complement Ther Med 2013; 21:712-23.
Theis VS, Sripadam R, Ramani V, Lal S. Chronic radiation enteritis. Clin Oncol. 2010; 22:70-83.
Kanmani P, Satish Kumar R, Yuvaraj N, et al. Probiotics and its functionally valuable products-a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013; 53:641-58.
Dai C, Zheng CQ, Meng FJ, et al. VSL#3 probiotics exerts the anti-inflammatory activity via PI3k/Akt and NF-κB pathway in rat model of DSS-induced colitis. Mol Cell Biochem 2013; 374:1-11.
Hamad A, Fragkos KC, Forbes A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of probiotics for the management of radiation induced bowel disease. Clin Nutr 2013; 32:353-60.
Roberfroid M. Prebiotics: the concept revisited. J Nutr 2007; 137:830S-7S.
Khademi S, Abdollahi H. Application of Hydrogen Producing Microorganisms in Radiotherapy: An Idea. Iran J Public Health 2014; 43:1018-9.
Abdollahi H, Atashzar M, Amini M. The potential use of biogas producing microorganisms in radiation protection. J Med Hypotheses Ideas 2015; 2:67-71.
Schoenfeld MP, Ansari RR, Nakao A, Wink D. A hypothesis on biological protection from space radiation through the use of new therapeutic gases as medical counter measures. Med Gas Res 2012; 2.
Schoenfeld MP, Ansari RR, Zakrajsek JF, et al. Hydrogen therapy may reduce the risks related to radiation-induced oxidative stress in space flight. Medical Hypotheses 2011; 76:117-8.
Liu H, Wang G. Fermentative hydrogen production from macro-algae Laminaria japonica using anaerobic mixed bacteria. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2014; 39:9012-7.
Han W, Yu KN, Wu LJ, et al. Mechanism of protection of bystander cells by exogenous carbon monoxide: Impaired response to damage signal of radiation-induced bystander effect. Mutat Res 2011; 709:1-6.
LeBlanc JG, Laiño JE, del Valle MJ, et al. B-group vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria–current knowledge and potential applications. J Appl Microbiol 2011;111:1297-309.
LeBlanc JG, Milani C, de Giori GS, et al. Bacteria as vitamin suppliers to their host: a gut microbiota perspective. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2013; 24:160-8.
Ray AK, Ghosh K, Ringø E. Enzyme-producing bacteria isolated from fish gut: a review. Aquaculture Nutrition 2012; 18: 465-92.
Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Radic Biol Med 2010; 49:1603-16.
Colon J, Herrera L, Smith J, et al. Protection from radiation-induced pneumonitis using cerium oxide nanoparticles. Nanomedicine 2009; 5:225-31.
Colon J, Hsieh N, Ferguson A, et al. Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect gastrointestinal epithelium from radiation-induced damage by reduction of reactive oxygen species and upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2. Nanomedicine 2010; 6:698-705.
Tarnuzzer RW, Colon J, Patil S, Seal S. Vacancy engineered ceria nanostructures for protection from radiation-induced cellular damage. Nano Lett 2005;5:2573-7.
Schweitzer AD, Revskaya E, Chu P, et al. Melanin-covered nanoparticles for protection of bone marrow during radiation therapy of cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010; 78:1494-502.
Chandrasekharan DK, Khanna PK, Kagiya TV, Nair CKK. Synthesis of nanosilver using a vitamin C derivative and studies on radiation protection. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2011; 26:249-57.
Chandrasekharan DK, Nair CKK. Studies on Silver Nanoparticle–Glycyrrhizic Acid Complex as a Radioprotector and an Adjuvant in Radiotherapy Under In Vivo Conditions. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2012; 27:642-51.
Kajita M, Hikosaka K, Iitsuka M, et al. Platinum nanoparticle is a useful scavenger of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. Free Radic Res 2007; 41:615-26.
Reddy MK, Wu L, Kou W, et al. Superoxide dismutase-loaded PLGA nanoparticles protect cultured human neurons under oxidative stress. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2008; 151:565-77.
Lu AH, Salabas EL, Schüth F. Magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, protection, functionalization, and application. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2007; 46:1222-44.
Song JY, Kim BS. Rapid biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extracts. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2009; 32:79-84.
Fedlheim DL, Foss CA. Metal nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications: CRC Press; 2001.
Iravani S. Bacteria in nanoparticle synthesis: Current status and Future prospects. International Scholarly Research Notices 2014; 2014.
Klaus T, Joerger R, Olsson E, Granqvist C-G. Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1999; 96:13611-4.
Parikh RY, Singh S, Prasad B, et al. Extracellular synthesis of crystalline silver nanoparticles and molecular evidence of silver resistance from Morganella sp.: towards understanding biochemical synthesis mechanism. Chem Bio Chem 2008; 9:1415-22.
Nair B, Pradeep T. Coalescence of nanoclusters and formation of submicron crystallites assisted by Lactobacillus strains. Crystal Growth & Design 2002;2:293-8.
Fu JK, Zhnag WD, Liu YY, et al. Characterization of adsorption and reduction of noble metal ions by bacteria. Chem J Chin Univ 1999;20:1454-6.
Kalishwaralal K, Banumathi E, Pandian SRK, et al. Silver nanoparticles inhibit VEGF induced cell proliferation and migration in bovine retinal endothelial cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2009; 73:51-7.
Kalishwaralal K, Deepak V, Ram Kumar Pandian S, et al. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Brevibacterium casei. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2010; 77:257-62.
Nanda A, Saravanan M. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Staphylococcus aureus and its antimicrobial activity against MRSA and MRSE. Nanomedicine 2009; 5:452-6.
Law N, Ansari S, Livens FR, et al. Formation of nanoscale elemental silver particles via enzymatic reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008; 74:7090-3.
Verma VC, Kharwar RN, Gange AC. Biosynthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus clavatus. Nanomedicine 2010; 5:33-40.
Ingle A, Rai M, Gade A, Bawaskar M. Fusarium solani: a novel biological agent for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11:2079-85.
Ahmad A, Mukherjee P, Senapati S, et al. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2003; 28:313-8.
Vigneshwaran N, Ashtaputre NM, Varadarajan PV, et al. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Materials letters 2007; 61:1413-8.
Fayaz M, Tiwary CS, Kalaichelvan PT, Venkatesan R. Blue orange light emission from biogenic synthesized silver nanoparticles using Trichoderma viride. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2010; 75:175-8.
Balaji DS, Basavaraja S, Deshpande R, et al. Extracellular biosynthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles by strains of Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2009; 68:88-92.
Vigneshwaran N, Kathe AA, Varadarajan PV, et al. Biomimetics of silver nanoparticles by white rot fungus, Phaenerochaete chrysosporium. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2006; 53:55-9.
Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M. Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au core–Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J Colloid Interface Sci 2004; 275:496-502.
Huang J, Li Q, Sun D, et al. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf. Nanotechnology 2007;18:105104.
Kasthuri J, Kathiravan K, Rajendiran N. Phyllanthin-assisted biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: a novel biological approach. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 2009; 11:1075-85.
Mude N, Ingle A, Gade A, Rai M. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using callus extract of Carica papaya-a first report. J Plant Biochemistry & Biotechnology 2009; 18:83-6.
Sathyavathi R, Krishna MB, Rao SV, et al. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract and their application in nonlinear optics. Advanced science letters 2010; 3:138-43.
Bar H, Bhui DK, Sahoo GP, et al. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Jatropha curcas. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2009; 348:212-6.
Vivekanandhan S, Misra M, Mohanty AK. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Glycine max (soybean) leaf extract: an investigation on different soybean varieties. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2009; 9:6828-33.
Yin Y, Hu J, Wang J. Gamma irradiation as a pretreatment method for enriching hydrogen-producing bacteria from digested sludge. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2014; 39:13543-9.
Schwarz A, Ständer S, Berneburg M, et al. Interleukin-12 suppresses ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis by inducing DNA repair. Nat Cell Biol 2002; 4:26-31.
Xiong GL, Zhao Y, Xing S, et al. Radiation protection effect of rhIL-12 on monkey hematopoietic system. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2013;21:150-4.
Neta R, Douches S, Oppenheim JJ. Interleukin 1 is a radioprotector. J Immunol 1986;136:2483-5.
Potten CS. Protection of the Small Intestinal Clonogenic Stem Cells from Radiation−Induced Damage by Pretreatment with Interleukin 11 also Increases Murine Survival Time. Stem Cells 1996;14:452-9.
Wong GH, Kaspar RL, Vehar G. Tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin: protection against oxidative stress through induction of MnSOD. EXS 1996;77:321-33.
Matsubara J, Tajima Y, Karasawa M. Metallothionein induction as a potent means of radiation protection in mice. Radiat Res 1987;111:267-75.
Mihandoost E, Shirazi A, Mahdavi SR, Aliasgharzadeh A. Can melatonin help us in radiation oncology treatments? Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:578137.
Koc M, Taysi S, Buyukokuroglu ME, Bakan N. Melatonin protects rat liver against irradiation-induced oxidative injury. J Radiat Res 2003;44:211-5.
Vijayalaxmi, Reiter RJ, Meltz ML. Melatonin protects human blood lymphocytes from radiation-induced chromosome damage. Mutat Res 1995;346:23-31.
Vijayalaxmi, Reiter RJ, Tan DX, et al. Melatonin as a radioprotective agent: a review. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004;59:639-53.
Maxhimer JB, Soto-Pantoja DR, Ridnour LA, et al. Radioprotection in normal tissue and delayed tumor growth by blockade of CD47 signaling. Sci Transl Med 2009;1:3ra7.
Dimova EG, Bryant PE, Chankova SG. Adaptive response: some underlying mechanisms and open questions. Genet Mol Biol 2008;31:396-408.
Abdollahi H. Beneficial effects of cellular autofluorescence following ionization radiation: hypothetical approaches for radiation protection and enhancing radiotherapy effectiveness. Med Hypotheses 2015;84:194-8.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology (ISSN 2330-4049)
© International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology (IJCTO)
To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'ijcto.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.